Interval of Three Years 1820-23.

     I CONTINUED to pursue my common vocation in life until the twenty-first of September, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-three, all the time suffering severe persecution at the hands of all classes of men, both religious and irreligious, because I continued to affirm that I had seen a vision.

Confession of Errors.

     During the space of time which intervened between the time I had the vision and the year eighteen hundred and twenty-three–having been forbidden to join any of the religious sects of the day, and being of very tender years, and persecuted by those who ought to have been my friends, and to have treated me kindly, and if they supposed me to be deluded to have endeavored in a proper and affectionate manner to have reclaimed me,–I was left to all kinds of temptations; and mingling with all kinds of society, I frequently fell into many foolish errors, and displayed the weakness of youth, and the foibles of human nature; which, I am sorry to say, led me into divers temptations, offensive in the sight of God.A In making this confession, no one need suppose me guilty of any great or malignant sins. A disposition to commit such was never in my nature. But I was guilty of levity, and sometimes associated with jovial company, etc., not consistent with that character which ought to be maintained by one who was called of God as I had been. But this will not seem very strange to any one who recollects my youth, and is acquainted with my native cheery temperament.1 B

Appearing of Moroni.

     In consequence of these things, I often felt condemned for my weakness and imperfections; when, on the evening of the above-mentioned twenty-first of September, after I had retired to my bed for the night, I betook myself to prayer and supplication to Almighty God for forgiveness of all my sins and follies, and also for a manifestation to me, that I might know of my state and standing before Him; for I had full confidence in obtaining a divine manifestation, as I previously had done. While I was thus in the act of calling upon God, I discovered a light appearing in my room, which continued to increase until the room was lighter than at noonday, when immediately a personage appeared at my bedside, standing in the air, for his feet did not touch the floor. He had on a loose robe of most exquisite whiteness. It was a whiteness beyond anything earthly I had ever seen; nor do I believe that any earthly thing could be made to appear so exceedingly white and brilliant. His hands were naked and his arms also, a little above the wrist, so, also were his feet naked, as were his legs, a little above the ankles. His head and neck were also bare. I could discover that he had no other clothing on but this robe, as it was open, so that I could see into his bosom. Not only was his robe exceedingly white, but his whole person was glorious beyond description, and his countenance truly like lightning. The room was exceedingly light, but not so very bright as immediately around his person.

Moroni’s Message.

     When first I looked upon him, I was afraid; but the fear soon left me. He called me by name, and said unto me that he was a messenger sent from the presence of God to me and that his name was Moroni;2 C that God had a work for me to do; and that my name should be had for good and evil among all nations, kindreds, and tongues, or that it should be both good and evil spoken of among all people. He said there was a book deposited, written upon gold plates, giving an account of the former inhabitants of this continent, and the sources from whence they sprang. He also said that the fullness of the everlasting Gospel was contained in it, as delivered by the Savior to the ancient inhabitants; also that there were two stones in silver bows–and these stones, fastened to a breastplate, constituted what is called the Urim and Thummim–deposited with the plates; and the possession and use of these stones were what constituted “Seers” in ancient or former times; and that God had prepared them for the purpose of translating the book.

Ancient Prophecies Quoted.

     After telling me these things, he commenced quoting the prophecies of the Old Testament. He first quoted part of the third chapter of Malachi3 and he quoted also the fourth or last chapter of the same prophecy, though with a little variation from the way it reads in our Bibles. Instead of quoting the first verse as it reads in our books, he quoted it thus:

     For behold the day cometh that shall burn as an oven, and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly shall burn as stubble; for they that come shall burn them, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leave them neither root nor branch.

     And again, he quoted the fifth verse thus:

    Behold I will reveal unto you the Priesthood, by the hand of Elijah the prophet, before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord.

     He also quoted the next verse differently:

    And he shall plant in the hearts of the children the promises made to the fathers, and the hearts of the children shall turn to their fathers; if it were not so, the whole earth would be utterly wasted at his coming.

     In addition to these, he quoted the eleventh chapter of Isaiah, saying that it was about to be fulfilled. He quoted also the third chapter of Acts, twenty-second and twenty-third verses, precisely as they stand in our New Testament. He said that that Prophet was Christ; but the day had not yet come when “they who would not hear his voice should be cut off from among the people,” but soon would come. He also quoted the second chapter of Joel, from the twenty eighth verse to the last. He also said that this was not yet fulfilled, but was soon to be. And he further stated that the fullness of the Gentiles was soon to come in. He quoted many other passages of Scripture, and offered many explanations which cannot be mentioned here.

Plates not to be Shown.

     Again, he told me, that when I got those plates of which he had spoken–for the time that they should be obtained was not yet fulfilled–I should not show them to any person; neither the breast plate with the Urim and Thummim; only to those to whom I should be commanded to show them; if I did I should be destroyed. While he was conversing with me about the plates, the vision was opened to my mind that I could see the place where the plates were deposited, and that so clearly and distinctly that I knew the place again when I visited it.

Second Appearing of Moroni.

     After this communication, I saw the light in the room began to gather immediately around the person of him who had been speaking to me, and it continued to do so, until the room was again left dark, except just around me, when instantly I saw, as it were, a conduit open right up into heaven, and he ascended until he entirely disappeared, and the room was left as it had been before this heavenly light had made its appearance. I lay musing on the singularity of the scene and marveling greatly at what had been told to me by this extraordinary messenger; when, in the midst of my meditation, I suddenly discovered that my room was again beginning to get lighted, and in an instant, as it were, the same heavenly messenger was again by my bedside. He commenced, and again related the very same things which he had done at the first visit, without the least variation; which having done, he informed me of great judgments which were coming upon the earth, with great desolations by famine, sword, and pestilence; and that these grievous judgments would come on the earth in this generation. Having related these things, he again ascended as he had done before.

The Third Appearing of Moroni.

     By this time, so deep were the impressions made on my mind, that sleep had fled from my eyes, and I lay overwhelmed in astonishment at what I had both seen and heard. But what was my surprise when again I beheld the same messenger at my bedside, and heard him rehearse or repeat over again to me the same things as before; and added a caution to me, telling me that Satan would try to tempt me, (in consequence of the indigent circumstances of my father’s family,) to get the plates for the purpose of getting rich. This he forbade me, saying that I must have no other object in view in getting the plates but to glorify God, and must not be influenced by any other motive than that of building His kingdom; otherwise I could not get them. After this third visit, he again ascended into heaven as before, and I was again left to ponder on the strangeness of what I had just experienced; when almost immediately after the heavenly messenger had ascended from me the third time, the cock crowed, and I found that day was approaching, so that our interviews must have occupied the whole of that night.

Fourth Appearing of Moroni.

     I shortly after arose from my bed, and, as usual, to the necessary labors of the day; but in attempting to work as at other times, I found my strength so exhausted as to render me entirely unable. My father, who was laboring along with me, discovered something to be wrong with me, and told me to go home. I started with the intention of going to the house; but, in attempting to cross the fence out of the field where we were, my strength entirely failed me, and I fell helpless on the ground, and for a time was quite unconscious of anything. The first thing that I can recollect was a voice speaking unto me, calling me by name. I looked up, and beheld the same messenger standing over my head, surrounded by light as before. He then again related unto me all that he had related to me the previous night, and commanded me to go to my father and tell him of the vision and commandments which I had received. I obeyed; I returned to my father in the field, and rehearsed the whole matter to him. He replied to me that it was of God, and told me to go and do as commanded by the messenger. I left the field, and went to the place where the messenger had told me the plates were deposited; and owing to the distinctness of the vision which I had had concerning it, I knew the place the instant that I arrived there.

The Hill Cumorah.

     Convenient to the village of Manchester, Ontario county, New York, stands a hill of considerable size, and the most elevated of any in the neighborhood.4 On the west side of this hill, not far from the top, under a stone of considerable size, lay the plates, deposited in a stone box. This stone was thick and rounding in the middle on the upper side, and thinner towards the edges, so that the middle part of it was visible above the ground, but the edge all around was covered with earth.

The Nephite Record.

     Having removed the earth, I obtained a lever, which I got fixed under the edge of the stone, and with a little exertion raised it up. I looked in, and there indeed did I behold the plates, the Urim and Thummim, and the breastplate, as stated by the messenger. The box in which they lay was formed by laying stones together in some kind of cement. In the bottom of the box were laid two stones crosswise of the box, and on these stones lay the plates and the other things with them.

Four Annual Visits to Cumorah.

     I made an attempt to take them out, but was forbidden by the messenger, and was again informed that the time for bringing them forth had not yet arrived, neither would it, until four years from that time; but he told me that I should come to that place precisely in one year from that time and that he would there meet with me, and that I should continue to do so until the time should come for obtaining the plates. Accordingly, as I had been commanded, I went at the end of each year, and at each time I found the same messenger there, and received instruction and intelligence from him at each of our interviews, respecting what the Lord was going to do, and how and in what manner His kingdom was to be conducted in the last days.

Story of Being a Money Digger.

     As my father’s worldly circumstances were very limited, we were under the necessity of laboring with our hands, hiring out by day’s work and otherwise as we could get opportunity. Sometimes we were at home, and sometimes abroad, and by continued labor, were enabled to get a comfortable maintenance. In the year 18245 my father’s family met with a great affliction by the death of my eldest brother, Alvin. In the month of October, 1825, I hired with an old gentleman by the name of Josiah Stowel, who lived in Chenango County, state of New York. He had heard something of a silver mine having been opened by the Spaniards in Harmony, Susquehanna county, state of Pennsylvania; and had, previous to my hiring to him, been digging, in order, if possible, to discover the mine. After I went to live with him, he took me, with the rest of his hands, to dig for the silver mine, at which I continued to work for nearly a month, without success in our undertaking, and finally I prevailed with the old gentleman to cease digging after it. Hence arose the very prevalent story of my having been a money digger.

The Prophet’s Marriage.

     During the time that I was thus employed, I was put to board with a Mr. Isaac Hale, of that place; it was there I first saw my wife (his daughter), Emma Hale.6 On the 18th of January, 1827 we were married, while I was yet employed in the service of Mr. Stoal. Owing to my continuing to assert that I had seen a vision, persecution still followed me, and my wife’s father’s family were very much opposed to our being married. I was, therefore, under the necessity of taking her elsewhere; so we went and were married at the house of Squire Tarbill, in South Bainbridge, Chenango county, New York. Immediately after my marriage, I left Mr. Stoal’s and went to my father’s, and farmed with him that season.


   1With this agrees a letter which the Prophet addressed to Oliver Cowdery upon hearing that it was the intention of the latter to publish a series of articles in the Saints’ Messenger and Advocate, on “Early Scenes and Incidents in the Church.” The letter referred to appeared in vol. I, no. 3, of the Messenger and Advocate, 1834.


Dear Brother:
   Having learned from the first number of the Messenger and Advocate, that you were not only about to “give a history of the rise and progress of the Church of the Latter-day Saints;” but that said history would necessarily embrace my life and character, I have been induced to give you the time and place of my birth; as I have learned that many of the opposers of those principles which I have held forth to the world, profess a personal acquaintance with me, though when in my presence, represent me to be another person, in age, education, and stature, from what I am.
    I was born (according to the record of the same, kept by my parents) in the town of Sharon, Windsor county, Vermont, on the 23rd of December, 1805. At the age of ten my father’s family removed to Palmyra, New York, where, in the vicinity of which, I lived, or, made it my place of residence, until I was twenty-one; the latter part in the town of Manchester.
    During this time, as is common to most, or all youths, I fell into many vices and follies; but as my accusers are, and have been forward to accuse me of being guilty of gross and outrageous violations of the peace and good order of the community, I take the occasion to remark that, though as I have said above, “as is common to most, or all youths, I fell into many vices and follies,” I have not, neither can it be sustained, in truth, been guilty of wronging or injuring any man or society of men; and those imperfections to which I allude, and for which I have often had occasion to lament, were a light, and too often, vain mind, exhibiting a foolish and trifling conversation.
    This being all, and the worst, that my accusers can substantiate against my moral character, I wish to add that it is not without a deep feeling of regret that I am thus called upon in answer to my own conscience, to fulfil a duty I owe to myself, as well as to the cause of truth, in making this public confession of my former uncircumspect walk, and trifling conversation and more particularly, as I often acted in violation of those holy precepts which I knew came from God. But as the “Articles and Covenants,” of this Church are plain upon this particular point, I do not deem it important to proceed further. I only add, that I do not, nor never have, pretended to be any other than a man “subject to passion,” and liable, without the assisting grace of the Savior, to deviate from that perfect path in which all men are commanded to walk.
    By giving the above a place in your valuable paper, you will confer a lasting favor upon myself, as an individual, and, as I humbly hope, subserve the cause of righteousness.
    I am, with feelings of esteem, your fellow-laborer in the Gospel of our Lord,
    [Signed] Joseph Smith.

   2In the original publication of the history in the Times and Seasons at Nauvoo, this name appears as “Nephi,” and the Millennial Star perpetuated the error in its republication of the History. That it is an error is evident, and it is so noted in the manuscripts to which access has been had in the preparation of this work. See also Book of Doctrine and Covenants, section 27, par. 5, and section 128, par. 20.
   3Most likely the first part of the chapter, as that deals with the coming of a messenger to prepare the way for the glorious coming of Messiah.
   4The following description of Cumorah is from the pen of Oliver Cowdery:
     You are acquainted with the mail road from Palmyra, Wayne county, to Canandaigua, Ontario county, New York, and also, as you pass from the former to the latter place, before arriving at the little village of Manchester, say from three to four, or about four miles from Palmyra, you pass a large hill on the east side of the road. Why I say large, is because it is as large perhaps, as any in that country. To a person acquainted with this road a description would be unnecessary, as it is the largest and rises the highest of any on that route. The north end rises quite sudden until it assumes a level with the more southerly extremity, and I think I may say an elevation higher than at the south a short distance, say half or three fourths of a mile. As you pass toward Canandaigua it lessens gradually until the surface assumes its common level, or is broken by other smaller hills or ridges, water-courses and ravines. I think I am justified in saying that this is the highest hill for some distance round, and I am certain that its appearance, as it rises so suddenly from the plain on the north, must attract the notice of the traveler as he passes by.–Messenger and Advocate, 1831.

   5A genealogy of the Prophet’s family in the Church records gives the date of Alvin’s death, November 19, 1825. Lucy Smith’s History of the Prophet agrees with the text above.–1824, November 19.
   6Emma Hale was born in the town of Harmony, Susquehanna county, Pennsylvania, July 10, 1804. It will therefore be observed that Emma Hale was in her twenty-third year at the time of her marriage with the Prophet; hence of age; hence, under the law, mistress of her own actions. This is remarked because the Prophet, in works written against him, is charged with having abducted his wife.


    AIn the Times and Seasons Vol. 3, page 749 Joseph Smith stated:

    “. . .I was left to all kinds of temptations; and mingling with all kinds of society, I frequently fell into many foolish errors, and displayed the weakness of youth, and the corruption of human nature; which, I am sorry to say, led me into divers temptations, to the gratification of many appetites offensive in the sight of God.”

    In the History of the Church, Vol 1. page 9, this is changes to read:

    “. . .I was left to all kinds of temptations; and mingling with all kinds of society, I frequently fell into many foolish errors, and displayed the weakness of youth, and the foibles of human nature; which, I am sorry to say, led me into divers temptations, offensive in the sight of God.”

    Charles Marshall who had been in Utah “sometime before June, 1871” was allowed the privilege of examining the original handwritten manuscript. Speaking of Joseph Smith’s behavior after the First Vision, he said:

    “During this interval he appears from his own confession to have abanded himself freely to a variety of youthful vices. ‘I was left to all kinds of temptation,’ he writes; ‘and mingling with all kinds of society, I frequently fell into many foolish errors, and displayed the weakness of youth, and the corruption of human nature: which, I am sorry to say, led me into divers temptations, to the gratification of many appetites offensive in the sight of God.’
    “I have italicised some of the expressions in this confession for a special reason. In the copy of the Autobiography in the Historian’s Office, Salt Lake, from which I made these extracts, the words I have thus marked are crossed through with ink. It will be perceived that if the passage be reprinted as thus trimmed, the sense will be much modified. This is but a trivial example of the way in which piety will lend itself to fraud for the honor of religion, and is scarcely perhaps worth mentioning. If Mormonism lives, as it promises to do, the process of purifying and exalting the prophet’s charater will no doubt be carried to great lengths.” (The Eclectic Magazine, April 1873, page 482, Reprinted from Frater’s Magazine for Feb. 1873)

    Walter L. Whipple, in his thesis submitted to the Brigham Young University, also states that the manuscript has been changed at this point. He states that in the Manuscript History? “The word ‘corruption’ is crossed out and ‘foibles’ written above it.” Speaking of the clause “to the gratification of many appetites” he says, “These words were written in the Ms History but were crossed out.”
    It is interesting to note that Charles Marshall speaks of the word “corruption” as being crossed out in the manuscript, however, he does not state that the word “foibles” is written above it as Walter Whipple did. This may indicate that the word foibles was not written in the manuscript until after 1871, or it may simply be an oversight on Mr. Marshall’s part.

    BOn pages 9 and 10 of the History of the Church, 82 words have been added which were not in the Times and Seasons. They are as follows:

    “In making this confession, no one need suppose me guilty of any great or malignant sins. A disposition to commit such was never in my nature. But I was guilty of levity, and sometimes associated with jovial company, etc., not consistent with that character which ought to be maintained by one who was called of God as I had been. But this will not seem very strange to any one who recollects my youth, and is acquainted with my native cheery temperament.” (History of the Church, Vol. 1. pages 9 and 10)

    Walter L. Whipple informs us that in the original manuscript the above words aren’t found in their proper place, but that they are found on page 133 of the manuscript. At the place they should appear the following words are found: ‘See note C p. 133.’ Who wrote the words and at what period of time is very hard to determine. They are not found in the first edition of the Pearl of Great Price which was published in 1851.

    CSpeaking of the personage which appeared in his room, Joseph Smith said:

    “He called me by name, and said. . .that his name was Nephi.” (Times and Seasons, Vol. 3, page 753)

    This was changed to read:

    “He called me by name, and said. . .that his name was Moroni.” (History of the Church, Vol. 1, page 11)

    Walter L. Whipple makes this statement concerning the handwritten manuscript: “Moroni is written above the name Nephi with an (*) next to it referring to a note at the bottom of the page: ‘*Evidently a clerical error, See Book Doc. & Cov. Sec 50, par 2: Sec 106, par 20, also Elder’s Journal Vol. 1, page 43. Should read Moroni.’ ” It is almost certain that this change was made after Joseph Smith’s death. Joseph Smith would have known if this was a clerical error and would not have written “Evidently a clerical error.” This sounds more like someone trying to justify the change after Joseph Smith’s death. The name was published as Nephi in the first edition of the Pearl of Great Price. Walter L. Whipple states that Orson Pratt “published The Pearl of Great Price in 1878, and removed the name of Nephi from the text entirely and inserted the name Moroni in its place.” (Textual Changes in the Pearl of Great Price, typed copy, page 125.)
    In LaMar Petersen’s book, Problems in Momon Text, he tells that Joseph Smith said the angel’s name was Nephi. In the July, 1961, issue of the Improvement Era, p. 492 and 522, Dr. Hugh Nibley attempts to answer this problem by stating:

    “Some critics, for example, seem to think that if they can show that a friend or enemy of Joseph Smith reports him as saying that he was visited by Nephi, they have caught the Prophet in a fraud.”

    In footnote 15, page 526 of the same issue, Dr. Nibley stated:

    “Mr. L. Petersen, Problems in Mormon Text (Salt Lake City, 1957), p. 3, n.4, labours this point most strangely. He cites as evidence the Millennial Star for August 1842 and the 1851 edition of the Pearl of Great Price–the first printed in England, far away from Joseph Smith, and the second edition years after his death: for them Joseph Smith cannot be held responsible. . . That Mr. P. should have to search so far among literally thousands of retellings of the story of Moroni to find this inevitable slip is actually a vindication of the original.”

    Apparently Dr. Nibley has missed the whole point; LaMar Petersen was telling how Joseph Smith’s story originally read. The original did say it was Nephi, and it was published in Nauvoo, Illinois, and Joseph Smith himself was the editor at the time. Therefore, Joseph Smith must be held responsible for identifying the angel as Nephi. For a more complete discussion of this see Mormonism—Shadow or Reality?, pages 10 and 11.


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